Mining Equipment and Machinery

As you already know, mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth of a deposit. There are, depending on the place where it takes place, various types of mining.

Types of mining

Within this process, we distinguish two types of mining, open-pit mining and underground mining.

Opencast mining

Open pit mining is the industrial activity that consists of removing large amounts of soil and subsoil, which is later processed to extract the mineral. This mineral can be present in very low concentrations, in relation to the amount of material removed.

Underground mining

Underground mining is the work that is carried out underground, and is carried out when the extraction of minerals in the open pit is not possible, either for environmental or economic reasons.

These processes have several stages and range from the extraction of the mineral until it becomes a marketable product.

Stages of the mining process

These stages change depending on the type of mining, but generally they are:

  • Exploitation : mineral extraction processes in the mine.
  • Loading : loading of the mineral in trucks.
  • Transport : movement of the mineral to the places where it is processed.
  • Crushing or processing : they are carried out in specialized centers where the rocks are crushed to obtain the minerals.
  • Refinement : it is the transformation and purification of minerals through techniques such as smelting.
  • Marketing : Purchase, sale and distribution of the product.
  • Recycling : after the useful life of the material, it melts to give them new uses.

For each of the mining processes a specialized machinery or installation is necessary.

Mining machinery and equipment

Exploitation: both machinery and facilities specialized in the process, as well as those that can help in the process.

  • Bucket Elevators and Accessories – Also known as vertical elevators. This equipment, widely used in primary and secondary industry, is designed in a standardized modular way for the vertical transport of solid bulks, both wet and dry, and is ideal especially when a conventional conveyor is not enough, there is a too steep slope or a great height. It has “heavy duty” bucket elevators, specially designed for lifting hard and abrasive minerals.
  • Belt conveyors: The belt conveyor is probably the most used equipment in the transport and handling of solids.
  •  Auger conveyors : We have dosing augers specially designed for hard and abrasive materials, as well as for medium materials. Among the former, we highlight the dosage of siliceous sands and highly abrasive aggregates in our dry mortar manufacturing facilities. As well as augers for cement, plaster, lime, etc.
  • Vibrating bottoms : Vibrating silo extractors facilitate the regular and continuous discharge of bulk products without disintegration or dead zones.
  • Microdosers : These equipments ensure a precise and exact dosage, and can be used in both continuous and discontinuous processes.
  • Dynamic weighing on conveyor belt : System for dynamic weighing of solid products on rubber belt conveyor belts. Valid for any conveyor belt as the frame design is universal.
  • Horizontal silos : They are used in cases of having a low height to install a traditional silo, products whose logistics require loading at origin and dosing at destination.
  • Bag and cartridge filters : we have a wide range of dust filters for various applications, mainly for industrial mineral processing facilities, dry mortar manufacturing, cement, gypsum, lime, recycling facilities, etc.
  • Discontinuous mixing : it is indicated for the manufacture of dry mortar. Continuous mixer : it is indicated for the manufacture of gravel-cement.
  • Humidifiers : designed to add water to fillers or fines, and allow their subsequent handling as a manageable solid without dust emission.

As well as the importance of goods in the mining process, the facilities that are had to perform an efficient work are very important.

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Machinery Used In Earthmoving Operations

The execution of the work of a road entails in any case a series of processes of clearing, filling and excavation to adapt the elevation levels of the natural terrain to those required by the construction project. In this post the different types of machinery used to carry out these tasks in their different phases are collected.

Excavating machines

The main function of excavating machines is the extraction of material from the natural terrain, its loading and transport and its unloading in the place chosen for the collection. Depending on the characteristics and unevenness of the terrain, two different types of excavators are used: on wheels and on chains or crawlers . The latter offer greater stability in the face of significant uneven terrain, as the machine’s center of gravity is lower and also has a larger contact surface with the ground .

The extraction of material from the ground can be done in various ways, depending on the nature of the ground, its composition and resistance to cutting . Specialized tools are required for this:

  • Bucket : it is used to pull the material to be excavated directly from the ground or to load it and transport it to other areas. It is used in granular or low resistance soils . It is the most common extraction tool.
  • Hammer : it is used to break rock-type terrain or those formed by materials of great hardness into small fragments that can later be handled by other machinery.
  • Ripper : it is generally used for the breaking of hard surface layers , which cannot be fragmented by other means.

Loaders

The loader is used in excavation and dismantling work to collect and transport the material collected by the excavator or generated by blasting the ground to the place chosen for storage on site or to the means of transport that will later transfer it to the quarry. The material transported by the shovel in these tasks is mainly composed of rocks, conglomerates and earth. The shovel bucket must be adapted to the characteristics of the materials to be transported.

Bulldozer tractor

The bulldozer is used in clearing and excavation work as an alternative to the excavator for the extraction and transport of thin layers of soil as long as the excavation depth is small . These extended layers must later be compacted by roller. With regard to the execution of embankments, the bulldozer can also be used to spread layers of filling material , although there are more specialized equipment to carry out this task, such as the motor grader, which we will talk about later.

Scrapers

The scrapers are specifically machinery used for loading and transporting material . Scrapers can perform excavation and hauling tasks similar to bulldozers, but cannot carry out the extension of layers of material. Its activity is indicated for the extraction of soil from surface layers of easily excavatable materials, collection of material and subsequent dumping in the place indicated for it. They are suitable equipment for the excavation of large areas and shallow depths.